American Systems Theorist, Engineer, Architect, Futurist, Visionary, Designer and Author
Buckminster Fuller, fully Richard Buckminster "Bucky" Fuller
American Systems Theorist, Engineer, Architect, Futurist, Visionary, Designer and Author
Synergetics: Exploration and publishing of the fourdimensional geometrical coordinate system employed by nature. (See Synergetics and Synergetics II [New York: Macmillan, 1975, 1979].) Discovered, 1927; published, 1944.
There is no historical record of religion founders who have been so bold as to assert that God had deeded land to anyone. History shows that religious leaders have, however, frequently complied with their king's instructions to plant a cross or other symbol of God's approval of their king's sword-accomplished vast lands seizure and ownership-claiming.
Tensegrity: The continuous-tension/discontinuous-compression structuring principle of Universe (i.e., stars not touching planets, electrons not touching their atomic nuclei) introduced to planet Earth to replace the continuously compressioned, secondarily tensioned structuring in present world-around engineering theory. Designed, 1929; prototyped, 1929.
Trends and Transformation Charts: These depict the total history of all the metallurgical, chemical, electromagnetic, structural, and mechanical trendings to greater performance per given amounts of given materials, time, and energy. A compendium of all the scenarios of science and technology's evoluting advances. Chronological chart of total history of scientific discoveries and technical inventions. Chronological chart of the mining of all metals and recirculation of the scrap of those metals. Chronological charts of all major industries' performances assessed in terms of per capita human use. These charts, begun in 1928; first published, 1937, at Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C.; published in Nine Chains to the Moon, 1938; published in Fortune magazine's tenth anniversary issue, 1940. This issue of Fortune went into three printings and took Fortune from red- to black-ink status. It changed U.S.A. and world economic health assessment from a tonnage criteria to one based on energy consumption.
The awareness of the emergence of a new world society has been only intuitive, because it is actualized only by a superficial knowledge of the overall integrated effects of an almost entirely nonsensorially contacted invisible reality of electronics, chemistry, metallurgy, atomics, and astrophysics. The epochal events of humans landing on the Moon, satellite-relayed "instant" around-the-world information, and an exclusively direct Sun-powered, Paris-to London flight are altogether reorienting world-around humanity's intuitive thinking into the realization that we can now do so much with so little that we can indeed take care of everybody.
Triangular geodesic framing of ocean-sailing hulls: Invented, 1948; successfully demonstrated, I.O.R. racing sloop Imp, 1979.
The burgeoning growth of corporate America has outpaced all the antitrust efforts.
Twin-hull rowing and sailing devices: Invented, 1938; prototyped, 1954.
The Dymaxion House: The autonomous, mass-producible, air-deliverable dwelling machine weighing only 3 percent of its equivolumed and equipped, conventional counterpart, single-family dwelling. Designed, 1927; modeled, 1928; helicopter-delivered, 1954.
The Dymaxion Omnitransport (for land, air, water-surface, and submarine travel): The first full-scale working prototype stage of which was the Dymaxion car, produced to test the crosswind ground-taxiing behaviors of an omni-streamlined, ultimately to be twin-orientablejet-stilts-flown, wingless flying device, which would take off and land like an eagle or duck, without any prepared landing fields (similar in principle to the forty-yearslater descent and takeoff, multijet system of the Apollo Moon Landing craft). Designed, 1927; prototyped, 1933.
The financial-market world is now assuming that the U.S. government will soon reach a crisis point beyond which it will no longer be able to pay off either its short- or long-term obligations.
I was convinced in 1927 that humanity's most fundamental survival problems could never be solved by politics. That alternative was through invention, development, and reduction to the physically working stages of mass production prototypes of each member of a complete family of intercomplementary artifacts, structurally, mechanically, chemically, metallurgically, electromagnetically, and cybernetically designed to provide so much performance per each erg of energy, pound of material, and second of time invested as to make it eminently feasible and practicable to provide a sustainable standard of living for all humanity ? more advanced, pleasing, and increasingly productive than any ever experienced or dreamed of by anyone in all history. It was clear that this advanced level could be entirely sustained by the many derivatives of our daily income of Sun energy. It was clear that it could be attained and maintained by artifacts that would emancipate humans from piped, wired, and metered exploitation of the many by the few. This family of artifacts leading to such comprehensive human success I identified as livingry in contradistinction to politics' weaponry. I called it technologically reforming the environment instead of trying politically to reform the people.
If you ignorantly believe there's not enough life support available on planet Earth for all humanity, then survival only of the fittest seems self-flatteringly to warrant magna-selfishness. However, it is due only to humans' born state of ignorance and the 99.99 percent invisibility of technological capabilities that they do not recognize the vast abundance of resources available to support all humanity at an omni-high standard of living.
Dymaxion World Map: Discovery and development of a new cartographic projection system by which humanity can view the map of the whole planet Earth as oneworld island in one-world ocean, without any visible distortion in the relative size and shape of any of the land masses and without any breaks in the continental contours. This is the undistorted map for studying world problems and displaying in their true proportion resources and other data. Discovered, 1933; published, 1943.
For the past thirty years the U.S. government's grand defense strategy has been a puppet of the supranational corporate giants with the strings invisibly manipulated. This policy has concentrated on accumulating greater numbers of atomic bombs than those of the U.S.S.R., while all the while the U.S.S.R. was (only) ostensibly endeavoring to keep pace with the U.S.A. bomb production. In reality the U.S.S.R. was dominantly preoccupied with building an all-oceans, primarily underwater navy from scratch and expanding numerically its conventional-weapons army divisions.
Geodesic Domes: The unlimited-size, clear-span structures to accommodate both humanity's converging and deploying activities. Invented, 1938; prototyped, 1947. Since then, over 300,000 have been produced and installed around the world from northernmost Greenland to the exact South Pole; over 100,000 installed in children's playgrounds.
GRUNCH didn't invent Universe. It didn't invent anything. It monopolizes know-where and know-how but is devoid of know-why. It is preoccupied with absolute selfishness and its guaranteed gratifications. It is as blind as its Swiss banks are mute.
Hanging bookshelves, and other furniture: Invented, 1928; prototyped, 1930. Modeling of all geometric developments of energetic-synergetic geometry: Including tensegrity models of all geometrical structures and the hierarchy of primitive structural systems. The minimum, all-space-filling module. The foldable, seven unique great-circle models. The tetrahelixes. Discovered, 1927; demonstrated, 1936.
Humanity is an experimental initiative of Universe. The experiment is to discover whether the complex of cosmic laws can maintain the integrity of eternal regeneration while allowing the mind of the species homo sapiens on the little planet Earth to discover and use some of the mathematical laws governing the design of Universe, whereby those humans can by trial and error develop subjectively from initial ignorance into satisfactorily informed, successful local-Universe monitors of all physically and metaphysically critical information and thereby serve objectively as satisfactory local-Universe problem-solvers in sustaining the integrity of eternally regenerative Universe.
I acquired one of the most important of my life's working assumptions when I undertook to answer my own 1927 self-questioning: "Why have humans been included in the design of Universe?". My hypothetical answer of 1927 was, and as yet is: What impresses me most is the experientially demonstrable fact that all living organisms other than humans have some organically integral equipment that gives them some inherent physical advantage in coping with special environmental conditions? a plant that can and does thrive only under dense Amazon river jungle conditions? a bird that can fly beautifully while in the sky but which cannot divest itself of those wings while awkwardly walking? the fish having equipment to extract oxygen from the water that dies out of water. Common with many creatures humans have brains. Brains of humans and other creatures are always and only coordinating and memory-storing the information reported to their brains by internal and external sensing devices regarding each special-case systemic experience. But humans are given mind's access to objectively realizable mathematical principles whereby humans can produce their own wings to outfly all the special-case, integrally winged birds. In addition to their brains humans have minds, possessed by no other known organism. Weightless, nonphysical minds are concerned with discovering the interrelated significance of all-time humanity's thus-far-experientially-discovered and experimentally-verified inventory of ever-experientially redemonstrable, only-mathematically-expressible cosmic design laws and of those laws' governance of the multi-alternative freedoms of realization as mathematically incisive, omnirational, variously magnituded, structurally associative and dissociative, nonsimultaneous, and only omnicomplexedly intercomplementary, always and only overlapping episodes altogether essential to eternally regenerative scenario Universe. HUMANS: IF successfully evolved physiologically, psychologically, and philosophically from their born naked, helpless-for-months, no-experience state of absolute ignorance to be progressively educated as driven only by innate hunger, thirst, procreative instinct, and curiosity into initiative-takings can thereby discover frequent errors of assumption, identification, or execution wherewith, if the individual's innate courage and sense of the importance of truth are greater than the sense of pride of the individual, error is admitted thus only inadvertently uncovering that which is true which discovered truth may prove to be both physically and metaphysically inspiringly advantageous information suggesting ways of progressively improving physical life-support systems and their environmental realizations together with their operational information agenda whereafter, encouraged by experiencing the ensuing, more favorable environmental circumstances accruing only to their ever abiding by the spontaneous self-admonitions springing intuitively from their innate love of the truth, the thus-inspired individuals persevere with integrity throughout some hundred thousand generations of such only-by-trial-and-error conditioning with each generation's intermatings of those mutually surviving under the evolving environment and mutually educated exclusively by such artifacts-accomplished, creative conversions of negative into positive circumstances and through those regenerative matings to concentrate the DNA-RNA, exclusively angle and frequency-controlled, structural and mechanical design programmings of the creatively imagining faculties and their corresponding crafting dexterities which with their inventing of words their metaphysical tools and electromagnetic-spectrum communications accomplishments might in time attain and sustain a semi-divine level of exclusively artifacts-realized, creative design wisdom adequate to render the cosmic environment healthily supportive of all humanity THEN shall humans discover that they have been included in Universe to function: first, as local Universe information-harvesters; secondly, as critical information-winnowers; thirdly, as generalized patterns-and-principles discoverers; and fourthly, employing those principles objectively to serve as local Universe problem-solvers in support of the integrity of eternally regenerative, only overlappingly inter-episoded scenario Universe.
By "money accounting" (in contradistinction to real-wealth accounting), the U.S.A. is now realistically bankrupt. Since Nixon became president, the U.S.A. has been unable to pay even the interest on its national debt, let alone reduce the principal.
Carbon blocks-inserted, copper disc-brakes: Invented and successfully demonstrated at Phelps Dodge, 1937. Bunsen-burner-melted, water-cooled centrifuge: For processing low-grade tin ore. Invented and successfully demonstrated at Phelps Dodge, 1937.
Compact, odorless toilet equipment: For conversion of human wastes into methane gas and fertilizer. Designed, 1928; proven in India; now being refined for production use.
Corporations are neither physical nor metaphysical phenomena. They are socioeconomic ploys ? legally enacted game-playing ? agreed upon only between overwhelmingly powerful socioeconomic individuals and by them imposed upon human society and its all unwitting members. How can little humans successfully cope with this greatest of all history's invisible Grunch of nonhuman Giants?
Let architects sing of aesthetics that bring
Rich clients in hordes to their knees.
Just give me a home, in a great circle dome
Where stresses and strains are at ease.
Roam home to a dome,
No banker would back with a dime.
No mortgage to show, no payments to go,
Where you dream, dwell and spend your own time. (Sung to the tune of “Home on the Range”)