Mozi or Mo-tze, Mocius or Mo-tzu, original name Mo Di, aka Master Mo

Mozi or Mo-tze, Mocius or Mo-tzu, original name Mo Di, aka Master Mo
c. 470 B.C.
c. 391 B.C.

Chinese Philosopher, founder of Mohist School, moral teachings emphasized self-reflection and authenticity rather than obedience to ritual in contrast to Confucius. He observed that we often learn about the world through adversity

Author Quotes

A generous man striving forwards never loses his goal.

If there is no mutual love between people, a mutual hatred will arise.

Suppose there were two people: one who maintains partiality and one who maintains impartiality. And the person who maintains partiality would say: ?How can I possibly regard the well being of my friends as I do my own well being?? How can I possibly regard the parents of my friends as I do my own parents?? And so when his friends are hungry, the partial person does not feed them. When his friends are ill, he does not nurture them. When his friends are cold, he does not clothe them.

What adds expenses but does not benefit the people, the Sage King does not undertake.

A man came by Mo Tzu?s school. Mo Tzu said, ?Why not come and study?? The reply was, ?No one in my family is learned.? Mo Tzu said, ?So what? Would a lover of beauty say ?No one in my family loves it, so I will not either?? Would a man who desired wealth and honors say ?No one in my family desires them, so I will not either?? ?When it comes to a love of beauty or desire for wealth and honors, people go ahead regardless of others. And righteousness is the greatest thing in the world. So why should one follow others in doing it??

If we could only make all the people in the world believe that the ghosts and spirits have the power to reward the worthy and punish the wicked, then how could there be any disorder in the world?

Suppose we try to locate the cause of disorder, we shall find it lies in the want of mutual love.

When feudal lords love one another there will be no more war; when heads of houses love one another there will be no more mutual usurpation; when individuals love one another there will be no more mutual injury. When ruler and ruled love each other they will be gracious and loyal; when father and son love each other they will be affectionate and filial; when older and younger brothers love each other they will be harmonious. When all the people in the world love one another, then the strong will not overpower the weak, the many will not oppress the few, the wealthy will not mock the poor, the honored will not disdain the humble, and the cunning will not deceive the simple. And it is all due to mutual love that calamities, strife, complaints, and hatred are prevented from arising. Therefore the benevolent exalt it.

A person will naturally follow the right way when under good influence. Thus, capable/skillful rulers are meticulous in their selection of people, but might be less careful in attending to/presiding-over the administration. But those who are incapable/lacking skill may wear out their body and deplete their energy, tax their mind and overextend their thought, yet have their states become more vulnerable and their selves be more humiliates. It?s not like the six princes [who came under bad influences and encountered calamities] did not care about their states or lives. It?s just that they did not properly understand the importance of things. And their notion of the importance of things was distorted by their bad influences.

If we should classify one by one all those who hate others and injure others, should we find them to be universal in love or partial? Of course we should say they are partial. Now, since partiality against one another is the cause of the major calamities in the empire, then partiality is wrong.

The murder of one person is called unrighteous and incurs one death penalty. Following this argument, the murder of ten persons will be ten times as unrighteous and there should be ten death penalties; the murder of a hundred persons will be a hundred times as unrighteous and there should be a hundred death penalties. All the gentlemen of the world know that they should condemn these things, calling them unrighteous. But when it comes to the great unrighteousness of attacking states, they do not know that they should condemn it. On the contrary, they applaud it, calling it righteous.

When nobody in the world loves any other, naturally the strong will overpower the weak, the many will oppress the few, the wealthy will mock the poor, the honored will disdain the humble, the cunning will deceive the simple. Therefore all the calamities, strifes, complaints, and hatred in the world have arisen out of want of mutual love. Therefore the benevolent disapproved of this want.

A state may face the onslaught of the Seven Perils. What are these Seven Perils? They are: 1. The palace and its chambers undergo renovations while the four walls of a fortress and its surrounding defensive trenches can hardly withstand the attack of enemies. 2. None of your neighbors comes to the rescue while enemies invade your territory. 3. Valuable human resources are used on useless projects and unworthy people are rewarded. 4. The officials are only concerned about protecting their jobs and income; scholars without posts are only concerned about establishing circles of influences. Meanwhile, a ruler amends laws to deter his ministers from voicing their opinions. 5. The ruler overestimates his own cleverness and fails to question the progress of administrative affairs. He takes no precautions because he assumes everything is in order. 6. Trusted ministers betray his trust while loyal ministers are cast aside. 7. Reserves and food crops are insufficient to feed the people, and ministers are incapable of shouldering government responsibilities. Rewards cannot make the people happy and punishments cannot keep them in awe. If a government runs into these Seven Perils, the state will certainly meet its demise. If a fortress runs into these Seven Perils, the city within the four walls will certainly fall into the hands of the enemy. Wherever these Seven Perils dwell there will be disasters.

In prosperous conditions, the worthy must be promoted. In un-prosperous conditions, the worthy must be promoted.

The purpose of the magnanimous is to be found in procuring benefits for the world and eliminating its calamities. ? Mutual attacks among states, mutual usurpation among houses, mutual injuries among individuals; the lack of grace and loyalty between ruler and ruled, the lack of affection and filial piety between father and son, the lack of harmony between elder and younger brothers ? these are the major calamities in the world.

When we try to develop and procure benefits for the world with universal love as our standard, then attentive ears and keen eyes will respond in service to one another, then limbs will be strengthened to work for one another, and those who know the Tao will untiringly instruct others. Thus the old and those who have neither wife nor children will have the support and supply to spend their old age with, and the young and weak and orphans will have the care and admonition to grow up in. When universal love is adopted as the standard, then such are the consequent benefits. It is incomprehensible, then, why people should object to universal love when they hear it.

All states in the world, large or small, are cities of Heaven, and all people, young or old, honourable or humble, are its subjects; for they all graze oxen and sheep, feed dogs and pigs, and prepare clean wine and cakes to sacrifice to Heaven. Does this not mean that Heaven claims all and accepts offerings from all? Since Heaven does claim all and accepts offerings from all, what then can make us say that it does not desire men to love and benefit one another? Hence those who love and benefit others Heaven will bless. Those who hate and harm others Heaven will curse, for it is said that he who murders the innocent will be visited by misfortune. How else can we explain the fact that men, murdering each other, will be cursed by Heaven? Thus we are certain that Heaven desires to have men love and benefit one another and abominates to have them hate and harm one another

It is things such as great states attacking small states, great families wreaking havoc on lesser families, the strong robbing the weak the many doing violence to the few, the clever deceiving the ignorant, and the noble acting arrogantly towards the humble.

The sage kings listened to the words of the worthy, watched their actions, observed their abilities, and on this basis carefully assigned them to office. This is called employing the capable.

Whoever criticizes others must have something to replace them. Criticism without suggestion is like trying to stop flood with flood and put out fire with fire. It will surely be without worth.

As he was talking to Ch?eng Tzu, Mo Tzu cited Confucius. Ch?eng Tzu remarked, ?You condemn Confucianism?so why did you just cite Confucius??

Kung Meng Tzu said, ?You believe a three-year mourning is wrong?so your three-day mourning is also wrong.? Mo Tzu said, ?You support three-year mourning and condemn three-day mourning. This is like a naked person condemning the person who lifts up his garment as indecent.

The state and the people should be governed by exalting the virtuous, in order for those who do good to be encouraged, and those who do evil to be obstructed/discouraged.

Fruit thieves are condemned by the people and punished by the government. Why? Because they act un-benevolently and harm others for their own benefit. Pig, chicken, and dog thieves are considered are considered even more unrighteous. Why? Because they act even more un-benevolently and do even more harm to others. Horse and cow thieves are considered even more unrighteous. Why? Because they act even more un-benevolently and do even more harm to others. Murderers who rob their victims are considered even more unrighteous. Why? Because they act even more un-benevolently and do even more harm to others. The world?s gentlemen know enough to condemn such acts and label them as unrighteous. Yet, when it comes to the more serious transgression of offensive warfare against other states, people do not know enough to condemn such an act. In fact, they praise it and call it righteous? Suppose someone called a little bit of black ?black,? and a lot of black ?white.? We would conclude that he did not properly differentiate between white and black. Suppose someone called a little bit of bitter, and a lot of bitter sweet. We would conclude that he did not properly differentiate between sweet and bitter. Yet when an atrocity is committed and a state is attacked, people do not know enough to condemn it. Instead, they praise it.

Mind is understanding of the essence of things.

Author Picture
First Name
Mozi or Mo-tze, Mocius or Mo-tzu, original name Mo Di, aka Master Mo
Birth Date
c. 470 B.C.
Death Date
c. 391 B.C.
Bio

Chinese Philosopher, founder of Mohist School, moral teachings emphasized self-reflection and authenticity rather than obedience to ritual in contrast to Confucius. He observed that we often learn about the world through adversity