American Poet, Journalist and Essayist
Walt Whitman, fully Walter "Walt" Whitman
American Poet, Journalist and Essayist
The literature, songs, esthetics of a country are of importance principally because they furnish the materials and suggestions of personality for the women and men of that country, and enforce them in a thousand effective ways.
There is, in sanest hours, a consciousness, a thought that rises, independent, lifted out from all else, calm, like the stars, shining eternal.
The known universe has one complete lover and that is the greatest poet. He consumes an eternal passion and is indifferent which chance happens and which possible contingency of fortune or misfortune and persuades daily and hourly his delicious pay. What baulks or breaks others is fuel for his burning progress to contact and amorous joy.
The land and sea, the animals, fishes, and birds, the sky of heaven and the orbs, the forests, mountains, and rivers, are not small themes ? but folks expect of the poet to indicate more than the beauty and dignity which always attach to dumb real objects ? they expect him to indicate the path between reality and their souls.
This is what you shall do: Love the earth and sun and the animals, despise riches, give alms to everyone that asks, stand up for the stupid and crazy, devote your income and labor to others, hate tyrants, argue not concerning God, have patience and indulgence toward the people, take off your hat to nothing known or unknown or to any man or number of men, go freely with powerful uneducated persons and with the young and with the mothers of families, read these leaves in the open air every season of every year of your life, re-examine all you have been told at school or church or in any book, dismiss whatever insults your own soul, and your very flesh shall be a great poem and have the richest fluency not only in its words but in the silent lines of its lips and face and between the lashes of your eyes and in every motion and joint of your body.
Without effort and without exposing in the least how it is done the greatest poet brings the spirit of any or all events and passions and scenes and persons some more and some less to bear on your individual character as you hear or read. To do this well is to compete with the laws that pursue and follow time.
Of all dangers to a nation, as things exist in our day, there can be no greater one than having certain portions of the people set off from the rest by a line drawn ? they not privileged as others, but degraded, humiliated, made of no account.
Our New World democracy, however great a success in uplifting the masses out of their sloughs, in materialistic development, products, and in a certain highly-deceptive superficial popular intellectuality, is, so far, an almost complete failure in its social aspects, and in really grand religious, moral, literary, and esthetic results? In vain have we annex?d Texas, California, Alaska, and reach north for Canada and south for Cuba. It is as if we were somehow being endow?d with a vast and more and more thoroughly-appointed body, and then left with little or no soul.
Should some two or three really original American poets, (perhaps artists or lecturers,) arise, mounting the horizon like planets, stars of the first magnitude, that, from their eminence, fusing contributions, races, far localities, &c., together they would give more compaction and more moral identity, (the quality to-day most needed,) to these States, than all its Constitutions, legislative and judicial ties, and all its hitherto political, warlike, or materialistic experiences.
The literature, songs, esthetics, &c., of a country are of importance principally because they furnish the materials and suggestions of personality for the women and men of that country, and enforce them in a thousand effective ways.
To take expression, to incarnate, to endow a literature with grand and archetypal models ? to fill with pride and love the utmost capacity, and to achieve spiritual meanings, and suggest the future ? these, and these only, satisfy the soul. We must not say one word against real materials; but the wise know that they do not become real till touched by emotions, the mind.
We had best look our times and lands searchingly in the face, like a physician diagnosing some deep disease. Never was there, perhaps, more hollowness at heart than at present, and here in the United States. Genuine belief seems to have left us. The underlying principles of the States are not honestly believ?d in, (for all this hectic glow, and these melodramatic screamings,) nor is humanity itself believ?d in.
A new founded literature, not merely to copy and reflect existing surfaces, or pander to what is called taste ? but a literature underlying life, religious, consistent with science, handling the elements and forces with competent power, teaching and training men ? and, as perhaps the most precious of its results, achieving the entire redemption of woman ? and thus insuring to the States a strong and sweet Female Race? ? is what is needed.
America, it may be, is doing very well upon the whole, notwithstanding these antics of the parties and their leaders, these half-brain?d nominees, the many ignorant ballots, and many elected failures and blatherers. It is the dilettantes, and all who shirk their duty, who are not doing well? America, if eligible at all to downfall and ruin, is eligible within herself, not without.
At all times, perhaps, the central point in any nation, and that whence it is itself really sway?d the most, and whence it sways others, is its national literature, especially its archetypal poems. Above all previous lands, a great original literature is surely to become the justification and reliance, (in some respects the sole reliance,) of American democracy. Few are aware how the great literature penetrates all, gives hue to all, shapes aggregates and individuals, and, after subtle ways, with irresistible power, constructs, sustains, demolishes at will.
Enter more strongly yet into politics? Always inform yourself; always do the best you can; always vote.
Far, far, indeed, stretch, in distance, our Vistas! How much is still to be disentangled, freed! How long it takes to make this American world see that it is, in itself, the final authority and reliance! Did you, too, O friend, suppose democracy was only for elections, for politics, and for a party name? I say democracy is only of use there that it may pass on and come to its flower and fruits in manners, in the highest forms of interaction between men, and their beliefs ? in religion, literature, colleges, and schools ? democracy in all public and private life.
I have sometimes thought ? that the sole avenue and means of a reconstructed sociology depended, primarily, on a new birth, elevation, expansion, invigoration of woman? Great, great, indeed, far greater than they know, is the sphere of women.
I know nothing grander, better exercise, better digestion, more positive proof of the past, the triumphant result of faith in human kind, than a well-contested American national election.
In the civilization of to-day it is undeniable that, over all the arts, literature dominates, serves beyond all ? shapes the character of church and school ? or, at any rate, is capable of doing so. Including the literature of science, its scope is indeed unparallel?d.
While they stand at home at the door he is dead already, the only son is dead. But the mother needs to be better, she with thin form presently drest in black, by day her meals untouch'd, then at night fitfully sleeping, often waking, in the midnight waking, weeping, longing with one deep longing, O that she might withdraw unnoticed, silent from life escape and withdraw, to follow, to seek, to be with her dear dead son.
You have waited, you always wait, you dumb, beautiful ministers, we receive you with free sense at last, and are insatiate hence-forward, not you any more shall be able to foil us, or withhold yourselves from us, we use you, and do not cast you aside—we plant you permanently within us, we fathom you not—we love you—there is perfection in you also, you furnish your parts, toward eternity, great or small, you furnish your parts toward the soul.
Who do you think that was, marching steadily, sternly confronting death? It was the brigade of the youngest men, two thousand strong.
You must not know too much or be too precise or scientific about birds and trees and flowers and watercraft; a certain free-margin, and even vagueness - ignorance, credulity - helps your enjoyment of these things.
Whoever is not in his coffin and the dark grave, let him know he has enough.